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In the Canton Delta 



BY 

GERALD S. BELL 



THE UNITED CHURCH OF CANADA 

The Committee on Missionary Education 
Kenneth J. Beaton, Secretary 

Literature Department — The Woman's Missionary Society 

Frances Bonwick, Secretary 

299 QUEEN STREET WEST. TORONTO 2B, ONT. 

1948 



COPYRIGHT 1948 BY 

THE COMMITTEE ON MISSIONARY EDUCATION 

THE UNITED CHURCH OF CANADA 



All rights reserved. 



PRINTED AND BOUND BY 

THE UNITED CHURCH PUBLISHING HOUSE 

TORONTO 



IN THE CANTON DELTA 



Kwangtung — Homeland of Chinese Emigrants 

The people of Kwangtung province in South 
China have been great wanderers. They are 
found on every continent and in every country. 
Apart from students and government officials, very 
few of the Chinese, whom one meets abroad, are 
from other parts of China. Is this because the 
Cantonese were the first in modern times to contact 
the nations from the West? It may have been 
just that. For their green and beautiful province 
looks out across the warm waters of the South 
China Sea. Portuguese, Spanish, British, Dutch 
and French sailors skirting the shores of south- 
eastern Asia sailed smack into this huge land mass 
bulging far out into the great Pacific Ocean. For 
a hundred years or more Canton was the only centre 
of trade with the Western world. Undoubtedly, 
many had migrated through the centuries to the 
lovely islands of the South Pacific, but it was this new 
contact with the West that really started the tide of 
emigration. 

The ties of the Chinese with their homeland were 
never willingly severed. Always the emigrant hoped 
to return — alive, if possible; but if not, he trusted 
that his bones should eventually lie in the "Good 
Earth. 55 This deep attachment to the land of his 
fathers has been an asset to the Christian Church 



in South China. It was one of the factors in the 
founding of the United Church of Canada Mission 
there. 

Chinese in Canada 

A few Chinese went into the Cariboo country of 
British Columbia during the gold rush days of the 
1850's. Most of these had drifted in from the 
Western States. It was not until the building of 
the Canadian Pacific Railway that Chinese came 
into Canada in large numbers as construction 
laborers. Later, most of these men settled in the 
larger cities. Religious work was begun among 
them by all the Canadian Churches. 

In 1887 a Chinese class was organized in the 
American Presbyterian Church, Montreal. But 
interested workers always felt terribly handicapped 
in trying to present the Gospel story within the 
limited English vocabulary of their pupils. A 
visit from a Cantonese speaking missionary was 
greatly desired. Finally, in 1892, Rev. J. C. 
Thomson, M.D. and Mrs. Thomson, missionaries 
from China, were brought to Montreal. Two 
years later they were located there permanently 
in charge of the Chinese work. Classes were 
organized in other churches in Montreal, and many 
accepted the Christian faith and were baptized into 
its fellowship. 

Chinese—Canadians Want Mission in Homeland 

It was fitting that these Chinese Christians should 
seek some missionary project to which they might 



contribute. What could be more natural than that 
it should be among their own people in South 
China? Consequently, they undertook the support 
of a native village preacher under the American 
Presbyterian Mission in Kwangtung (Canton) 
province. Before long, however, it was felt desirable 
to have a Canadian Mission in that area. The 
Presbyterian Church in Canada had begun work in 
Honan, North China, in 1888. Its success greatly 
stimulated interest in missionary work throughout 
the Church. 

The suggestion, therefore, that a Mission be 
established in South China aroused great 
enthusiasm among the Chinese and their teachers. 
At the General Assembly in 1901, permission was 
granted to the Foreign Mission Committee to 
begin work in Macao. In May, 1902, Rev. W. R. 
McKay, M.A., and his wife, of Pictou, Nova Scotia, 
were appointed the first missionaries of the Canadian 
Presbyterian Church to South China. Their 
salary was provided largely by the Chinese in the 
Sunday Schools of Canada. Mr. and Mrs. McKay 
were set apart for their work in Knox Church, 
Montreal, sailed from Victoria on Oct. 6th, and 
reached Macao on the 31st of the same month. 

Macao — Birthplace of Protestant Missions 

Macao, ninety miles south of Canton city, has 
close ties with the beginning of Protestant Missions 
in China. It was to Macao that Robert Morrison, 
first Protestant missionary to China, retreated again 
and again, sick, lonely, and oppressed, from the 



CD. 



little trading post outside the walls of Canton. 
It was there that the first copies of his translation 
of the Book of Acts were delivered into his hands. 
Ninety-five years had passed between Morrison's 
arrival and the coming of Mr. and Mrs. McKay. 
Then there was not one Protestant Christian; now 
there were many thousands. Then not one city in 
China was open to Morrison; now missionaries 
could, and did go anywhere in the land. Then the 
missionary was viewed with suspicion, distrust and 
hatred: now, following the Boxer Uprising of 1900, 
the missionary was welcomed, trusted and respected. 
It was in this the Golden Age of missionary 
endeavour in China, that our new missionaries 
began their work. Between 1902 and 1907, Miss 
Agnes Dickson, Dr. Isabel Little, Dr. Jessie Mac- 
Bean, Dr. J. A. McDonald and Rev. and Mrs. T. A. 
Broadfoot were added to the staff. 

For the first five years of its history the Mission 
was known as the " Macao Mission," because that 
city was its headquarters. The first church to be 
opened was at Peng Lam, a town of about ten 
thousand people in Heung Shan district. A 
native of the place, Mr. Cheng Kwan Tsung had 
returned from Australia where he had become a 
Christian. Hearing that the Canadian Mission 
intended opening work in his home district, he 
offered to rent the ancestral temple of his clan. 
How attitudes had changed from Morrison's day! 
Think of it — an ancestral hall became a place of 
Christian worship. Mr. Cheng himself took charge 
and so became our first Chinese preacher. Shortly 



afterward two men and two women were baptized 
in this chapel — the first fruits of our work in 
South China. 

Other Missions had been at work in Southern 
Kwangtung for many years. It was necessary, 
therefore, to work out a plan that would give the 
Canadian Presbyterian Mission a field that would 
not involve overlapping or duplication of work 
already being done by others. Indeed, this policy 
has been followed in every mission field in which 
the United Church of Canada works. There is 
full co-operation with other Churches, but no 
competition or overlapping. 

Kongmoon Becomes Mission Centre 

By mutual agreement three districts, Heung Shan, 
San Ui and Hok Shan, in eastern Kwangtung were 
assigned to the Canadian Church. This involved 
the transfer to our Mission of certain work, including 
five chapels, formerly under the American Presby- 
terian Mission. Kongmoon, K a city on the West 
River, became the new headquarters of the Mission 
as it was centrally located for work in the three 
districts. Houses were rented, and in August, 
1907, the missionaries moved from Macao to 
Kongmoon. From that time the Mission has been 
known as u The South China Mission. 55 

San Ui is a large city a few miles distant from 
Kongmoon. Away back in 1872 an American 
Presbyterian missionary first visited the city. The 
people were very conservative and anti-foreign in 
spirit. It was not easy to get a place to begin work. 



Patience and persistence were rewarded, and soon 
a small school was opened by Rev. Henry Noyes, 
father of Rev. W. D. Noyes, D.D., who for many 
years has been superintendent of our Chinese work 
in Eastern Canada. What a link this is — bridging 
a period of over seventy-five years — between 
Kwangtung and Canada ! 

The next fifteen years saw a remarkable expansion 
of the work on this new field. In Kongmoon and 
Shekkei, the latter the chief city in Heung Shan 
district, property was purchased and buildings were 
erected. Mission houses, schools, churches, 
hospitals and nurses 5 homes were completed and 
occupied. Perhaps the most interesting feature 
of this building programme was the erection of the 
Shekkei hospital. 

Returned Christians Build for the "Kingdom" 

Shekkei is one of the most progressive cities in the 
province with a population of about three hundred 
thousand. Heung Shan district men had emigrated 
to all parts of the world. Many of them had gone 
to Australia and returned as wealthy men. The 
founders of the three largest and most famous 
department stores in Shanghai, Hongkong and 
Canton were from Heung Shan. They had become 
Christians while in Australia and were deeply 
interested in the work the Canadian Mission was 
doing in their home district. When the need for 
a modern hospital in Shekkei was raised, the 
Christian merchants volunteered to provide the 
land and the buildings, if the Mission would become 

8 



responsible for its administration. The agreement 
was kept on both sides, and the hospital was opened 
in 1924, with Dr. G. G. Wannop in charge and 
Miss Baty as superintendent of nurses. 

The opening of these department stores was a 
significant event in Chinese commercial life. It 
is significant also that they should be the creation 
of Christian men. From time immemorial it 
had been the custom to "talk price" even for the 
daily vegetables one bought. These were the 
first "one price" stores — everything clearly marked 
— so much, no more and no less. The success of 
these stores in Hongkong, Canton and Shanghai 
has been phenomenal. Factories, sugar and tex- 
tile mills, banks and even hotels were added to 
meet the public's demand for goods and services. 
Throughout the years the heads of these companies 
have contributed large sums of money to Christian 
and philanthropic work in China. 

As in other mission fields, medical work in South 
China served a dual purpose. In their primary 
task of healing the sick, the missionary doctors and 
nurses brought all the skill and care of modern 
medical science to people without such help. This 
was particularly true of surgical care. But the 
doctor and the hospital were also effective agencies 
for reaching people otherwise inaccessible to the 
Christian Church. Ignorance and misrepresenta- 
tion of the purposes and aims of the Christian 
Church often kept people away. A visit to the 
doctor, or better still, a stay of some weeks in a 
hospital brought not only physical relief, but dis- 



pelled suspicions and prejudices regarding the 
missionary and the Christian religion. Not a few 
homes became Christian after contacts with the 
medical work of the Mission. The very ground on 
which the Kongmoon hospital was built was 
obtained through such a contact. The owner was 
unwilling to sell. Some months later a member 
of the family became seriously ill. The missionary 
doctor was called in — the patient recovered. In 
gratitude, the head of the family and owner of the 
land readily agreed to sell. 

New Life in Mission Schools 

The South China Mission began its work at the 
time when the old classical system of education was 
being abolished by the Chinese Government. 
Education, as it had been for hundreds of years, 
was represented by small private or clan schools, 
usually held in the ancestral hall. The pupils 
were mostly boys. Except in homes of the wealthy, 
where private tutors were engaged, few girls had 
opportunities for study. Memorization of the 
classics and writing were the main subjects. There 
was little real teaching as the western world under- 
stands it. Thus these unpretentious, poorly equipped 
schools lacked nearly every essential of a well- 
ordered educational institution. 

For the missionaries the government's new policy 
in education was a wide-open door. They, better 
than anyone else in China, knew the content and 
methods of modern western education. Primarily 
their interest was in the children of Christian 

10 



parents, but all children were made welcome. Such 
schools not only gave instruction in the subjects of 
a modern curriculum, but also afforded daily 
opportunities for Bible teaching. Day schools were 
opened in the village chapels, while larger, modern- 
type school buildings were erected in the three 
large central stations. In Kongmoon, separate 
Boarding Schools were built for boys and girls. 

This was new life, indeed, for young China. The 
activities of these Boarding Schools were not con- 
fined to the classroom. The playground, too, 
became a vital factor in education. Boys and girls 
found in field and track sports, in physical training 
and Boy Scouts, a new source of well-being and 
enjoyment. To the young generations of girls 
with unbound feet this was one of the freedoms that 
marked the coming of a new age for Chinese woman- 
hood. The success of these Christian schools was 
shown in the growing number of young men and 
women graduates offering themselves for Christian 
service in Church, school and hospital. 

Links With Other Lands 

All this time the original purpose in founding 
the South China Mission was steadfastly pursued, 
that is, to relate the work among the Chinese in 
Canada to mission work in their homeland. The 
missionaries early discovered how close were these 
ties. Everywhere they went, they met men who 
had lived in Vancouver, Calgary, Winnipeg, 
Toronto, Montreal and in scores of other towns and 
cities from the Pacific to the Atlantic in both 

11 



Canada and the United States. They met on the 
country roads, on the boats, on the trains. They 
met them in small market towns and on busy city 
streets. They visited them in their homes, and, 
in turn, were visited by these returned men. Their 
children came to the Mission schools; their sick came 
to our hospitals and many attended the chapels 
and churches. 

A group of men who became Christians in New 
York returned to China with plans to build homes 
for themselves. Their leader said, "Before we 
build our own homes, we must build the house of 
God." So a church, the first building of that 
type in their home town, was built without help 
from any mission. Then they built their own 
homes, a block of modern houses with glass windows 
and fully screened against flies and mosquitoes. 
They called their settlement "Canaan Hall," 
and no idols or other symbols of non-Christian 
faiths were allowed in any home. 

One of the most prominent among the returned 
men from Canada was Peter Hing — a lawyer and 
graduate of McGill University. He entered the 
service of the Canton Provincial government and 
held important posts for many years. The link 
between the Older Church in the West and the 
Younger Church in the East was now closely forged. 
As evidence of this, Chinese pastors trained in 
South China came to serve their fellow-countrymen 
in Canada. Men who had become Christians in 
Canada returned to China for training and remained 
to minister there. 

12 



Mr. Taam Tsz Kan was one of this latter group. 
A former business man in Montreal, he returned 
to become a leading preacher in our work. One 
day, while walking down a street in Montreal, his 
hat blew off. As he stooped to pick it up, another 
gust of wind carried it away. He had been feeling 
very lonely and the laughter of some boys increased 
his embarrassment and sense of loneliness. Just 
then a lady at whose feet the hat had come to rest 
picked it up and handed it to him with a smile. 
That touched him deeply, and from this simple act 
of courtesy and kindness he found a new way of life. 
He had often been treated rudely, so the action of 
this unknown Canadian woman made him think. 
He remembered that he had heard other Chinese 
speak of a Christian Church where English classes 
were held and where the Christian religion was 
taught. He decided to go. There he not only 
learned English, but also of Jesus, the Saviour of 
all men. Thus step by step he was led into the 
Christian Church and its ministry in his homeland. 

Missionaries on furlough have contacted young 
men who had studied in our Kongmoon Boarding 
School, and who were now in business in Canada. 
Thus the religious life of these people in Canada 
and China had been deepened and enriched by this 
normal migration to and fro across the Pacific. 

The Church of Christ in China 

As in other parts of China, mission work in South 
China was disrupted during the period of violent 
anti-foreign and anti-Christian agitation of the 

13 



years 1925 to 1927. Fortunately, property losses 
were not serious. It was in this time of intense 
national feeling, however, that one of the most 
significant developments in the Christian movement 
in China took place. It was inevitable that the 
close co-operation between certain Churches already 
noted, should result in union of some sort. It was 
natural, too, that much of the drive for such action 
should come from the Churches in Kwangtung 
where they had been at work for more than a 
century. In 1925 the Kwangtung Synod was 
organized with seven Missions participating. The 
first General Assembly of the Church of Christ in 
China was held in Shanghai in October, 1927. 

The direction of the evangelistic work of our 
South China Mission was turned over to the Kwang- 
tung Synod as part of the Tenth Presbytery. 
Evangelistic missionaries serve under the Church 
of Christ in China as they formerly did under the 
Mission Council and are eligible for appointment 
to any office in the organization. The Church had 
become firmly and deeply rooted in the life of the 
country. 

During this period the Mission had also joined 
in other union efforts. There was, and is today, 
full participation in several institutions located in 
Canton city. They are the Union Women's Normal 
School, the Pui Ying Middle School for Boys, the 
Union Theological College and the Canton Chris- 
tian Hospital and Medical College of Lingnan 
University. 

14 



A Decade of Adjustment and Growth 

The decade between 1927 and the outbreak of 
the Sino-Japanese war in 1937 was marked by 
steady growth in the work of the Church. The 
Tenth Presbytery benefited greatly from the wider 
associations that came from its connection with 
the Kwangtung Synod. Equally helpful, too, was 
the enlarged outlook and sense of the Christian 
Church's place in Chinese life that came through 
the visits of General Assembly officers, and through 
attendance at the General Assembly meetings. 
All this built up a stability and sturdy independence 
that were to be invaluable in the war years ahead. 
Many adjustments had to be made between the 
evangelistic missionaries and the ordained Chinese 
pastors. That the transfer of authority was made 
without clash was due to the fine sense of comrade- 
ship existing between them. Mutual confidence 
and trust ironed out difficulties as they rose. 

New congregations were organized; new churches 
and chapels were built from local funds and every- 
where throughout the mission a spirit of aggressive 
evangelism manifested itself. Responsibility was 
assumed along with the control of the work. Con- 
gregation after congregation became fully self- 
supporting — a step they felt to be in keeping with 
their new status. It is interesting to note that many 
churches have grown out of small groups meeting 
in the home of some zealous Christian. The 
grandson of one devout woman, who thus gave the 
use of her home for many yea v rs, is now taking post- 

15 



graduate work in Emmanuel College, Toronto. 
He is an ordained minister of the Church of Christ 
in China and will later return to his work there. In 
the meantime, he is assisting in the work of the 
Chinese Church in Toronto. 

The direction of the educational and medical 
work remained with the Mission Council during 
this decade. The co-operative work in the Women's 
Union Normal School continued to flourish, but 
the Boarding Schools at Kongmoon had many 
ups and downs. Under the National Government's 
new educational policy all private schools — the 
Mission schools were in this category — must register 
with the Government. Such registration pro- 
hibited religious teaching or holding of religious 
services in the schools. The Mission decided to 
refuse registration so that instruction could be 
continued. On the other hand, students from an 
unregistered school could not enter a registered 
school of a higher grade. Consequendy, the 
pupils in our mission schools were mostly those who 
did not plan to go beyond the primary grade. The 
inefficiency and weakness of this method were finally 
recognized and, shortly before the outbreak of war, 
in 1937, the educational work was turned over to 
the Church of Christ in China. The Presbytery 
at once transferred the control of the Kongmoon 
schools to the Pui Ying Middle School by whom the 
schools were then registered. 

The medical work at Kongmoon was carried on 
without interruption throughout the decade. Dr. 
Victoria Cheong, a Canadian-born Chinese woman 

16 



— had been appointed by the Woman's Missionary 
Society in 1923. Her work in the Kongmoon 
hospital had been carried on with quiet efficiency. 
The appointment of Dr. J. R. Lind and Mrs. Lind, 
1932, gave the medical work in Kongmoon a decided 
boost. The benefits of consultation and close co- 
operation were soon evident. General efficiency 
was greatly increased by the addition of an X-Ray 
machine and a motor ambulance to the hospital's 
equipment. Part of the cost was raised locally. 
For several years the Mission had been unable to 
fulfil the terms of its contract with the Board of 
Shekkei hospital, that is, to appoint a medical 
missionary as superintendent. But in 1934 the 
arrival of Dr. R. L. Cockfield and Mrs. Cockfield 
lifted a burden of anxiety from the Board. 

In 1935 the Canton Hospital, where Dr. J. O. 
Thomson, one of our missionaries, and son of the 
Dr. and Mr. Thomson who began the Chinese 
work in Montreal, was head of the surgical depart- 
ment, celebrated its Centenary. Among those 
present was a Dr. Parker, a grandson of Dr. Peter 
Parker who opened the hospital one hundred years 
before. The special feature of the occasion was 
the opening of the New Canton hospital building 
— a fine, fully modern structure. On the same day 
the corner-stone of the Sun Yat Sen Memorial 
Medical College was laid. At one time Dr. Sun 
Yat Sen, great revolutionary leader and the father 
of the Republic of China, was a medical student 
in the Canton Hospital. This Medical College is 

17 



part of Lingnan University — the great Christian 
University in Canton, in the work of which our 
mission participates. 

Shadows of War Across the Land 

From the time of the Japanese seizure of Man- 
churia in September, 1931, impending war cast 
its dark shadow across the land. North China 
was the early scene of Japanese pressure and pene- 
tration, but uneasiness prevailed in every part. 
Up to Christmas 1936, the National Government 
under Generalissimo Chiang Kai Shek had been 
occupied with the fight against the revolutionary 
Communist armies. They had now been driven 
into the remote and sparsely settled areas of 
Northern Shensi. Yenan, a town in the loess hills, 
had become the Communist capital. After the 
kidnapping of the Generalissimo at Sian, capital 
of Shensi province, in December 1936, a truce was 
made with the Communists so that China might 
unite against the growing Japanese threat to Chinese 
sovereignty. 

The storm was not long in breaking. On July 7, 
1937, the shooting at the Marco Polo Bridge in 
Peiping revealed Japan's full intention to bring the 
entire Far East under her control. Beginning in 
the North hostilities spread rapidly to the South. 
In March, 1938, Kongmoon suffered its first bomb- 
ing and our hospitals were soon filled with wounded. 
Canton had fallen six months before, but now 
Kongmoon felt the heavy hand of the invader. 
Missionaries were restricted in their movements. 

18 



No longer were they free to come and go between 
"occupied 55 and "unoccupied 55 territory. Much 
time and effort were given to the care of refugees 
who thronged the mission compounds. 

Before the fall of Canton the union institutions 
with which our Mission was associated had moved 
to other areas. The Union Normal School for 
Women had gone to Macao, a Portuguese colony. 
The Union Theological College had trekked to the 
Far Western province of Yunnan, where it settled 
in Talifu — almost on the borders of Burma. After 
the fall of Burma, when Western Yunnan was 
threatened, the College moved back to Northern 
Kwangtung. Lingnan University also settled in 
a small rural town in northern Kwangtung. These 
people, like the early Christians in Palestine, were 
"scattered abroad. 55 And, because they were from 
older and better established Churches, they acted 
as leaven in the newer communities. The life of 
the whole Christian Church in "Free China 55 was 
greatly enriched and benefited by the infusion of 
this new blood. 

Between the occupation of Kongmoon in March, 
1939, and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, 
Dec. 8th, 1941, the activities of the missionaries 
and their associates were steadily restricted. Even 
in medical work Dr. Victoria Cheong, and her 
assistant Dr. Wong, were unable to do anything 
outside the hospital. But within the hospital a 
work of mercy was carried on for little children 
orphaned by bombing or lost in the disorder and 
chaos of refugee flights. 

19 



After "Pearl Harbor" 

At the time of "Pearl Harbor" only Rev. Dr. 
T. A. Broadfoot and Mrs. Broadfoot with Dr. 
Victoria Cheong remained in Kongmoon. Some 
months previously Dr. J. O. Thomson and Rev. 
D. McRae had left on regular furlough. Miss 
Irene Moore was interned, first, at Canton and 
later at Shanghai, from which place she was later 
repatriated to Canada on the Gripsholm. Miss 
Bessie Cairns had returned from furlough before 
"Pearl Harbor" going direct to Macao where she 
again took up her work in the Normal School. 
Dr. and Mrs. Broadfoot were taken by the Japanese 
to Macao where they were released but with their 
movements restricted to the city. Dr. Victoria 
Cheong did not reveal her Canadian citizenship, 
and so was able to remain in Kongmoon. She had 
to move from the hospital, but carried on in private 
practice throughout the occupation. The big 
mission compound, being on the river bank, became 
Japanese headquarters. Pill boxes were con- 
structed, and these with other military works made 
the property a veritable fortress. 

Kongmoon and the other stations of the South 
China field were now cut off. A "curtain" of silence 
fell over the work. Months later news began to 
trickle out. Contact was made between the Chinese 
staff and the offices of the Kwangtung Synod of 
The Church of Christ in China which had been set 
up in Kukong — a city in free territory in Northern 
Kwangtung. Before long an "underground" 

20 



organization was operating between Macao and 
"Free China." With the assistance of this organ- 
ization Dr. and Mrs. Broadfoot escaped from that 
city in 1943. It was a tricky and dangerous scheme 
involving travel on foot for long distances through 
occupied territory. They eventually arrived safely 
at Kukong where they remained to serve the Church 
through the Synod offices. 

In 1944, the last desperate Japanese thrust forced 
the evacuation of Kukong. Dr. and Mrs. Broad- 
foot had once more to flee. This time their flight 
ended at Kunming, capital of Yunnan province. 
From that distant point, Dr. Broadfoot again 
established contact with his Chinese associates in 
Kwangtung. Mrs. Broadfoot, cut off now from 
all the intimate associations of the years, returned 
to Canada. Miss Ray Isaac, a W.M.S. nurse, 
had arrived shortly before this Japanese drive. She 
did splendid work among the thousands upon 
thousands of refugees driven from their homes, 
and later served with the Friends Ambulance 
Unit in Yunnan for six months. 

Post- War Rehabilitation 

Immediately after V-J Day, Dr. Broadfoot obtained 
passage on a military plane from Kunming to 
Canton. In Canton and Hongkong he carried on 
negotiations for the return of the property, and 
correspondence was carried on with the Home 
Boards regarding rehabilitation and reconstruction. 
In late September Miss Cairns and Miss Isaac were 
back in Kongmoon with Dr. Cheong helping to 

21 



make all the adjustments necessary after years of 
war and enemy occupation. Property was taken 
over directly from the Japanese or from the Chinese 
forces to whom the Japanese had surrendered. 
Further damage to property was prevented by this 
prompt action. Dr. Cheong and Miss Isaac were 
re-established in their hospital, but unfortunately 
without equipment or supplies. Little remained 
but empty and seriously damaged buildings. With 
emergency grants from the Board of Overseas Mis- 
sions and the Woman's Missionary Society the most 
urgent repairs were made. Splendid gifts of 
medical supplies and equipment came from the 
Canadian-Chinese War Relief Committee and 
CNRRA, the Chinese government counterpart of 
the UNRRA organization. 

Rehabilitation of property was not the only 
pressing need. These missionaries — Dr. Victoria 
Cheong, Dr. Broadfoot and Miss Cairns needed 
furlough. The strain of the war years had been 
intense. The Home Boards took action to supply 
replacements. Rev. Duncan McRae was recalled 
from a pastorate in Ontario for the evangelistic 
work. Dr. Wallace McClure gave up an important 
position in the Ontario Public Health Service to 
return to Kongmoon where he had served for one 
term. Miss Irene Moore also returned to Kong- 
moon where it is hoped that a Nurses 5 Training 
School may be organized. 

The latest reports from South China indicate a 
fine, aggressive spirit in the evangelistic work. It 
is revealed not merely in repairing chapels and 

22 



building new churches, but also in the emphasis 
on deepening the spiritual life of the Christian 
community, and greater efforts to bring others into 
its fellowship. The work in the Union Normal 
School for Women and the Pui Ying school is 
outstanding. During the fall term of 1947 over 
sixty young women in the Normal School identified 
themselves with the Christian Church. 

Our total responsibility in South China is small 
as compared with other areas, but it lies within a 
very strategic sphere. With the improved status 
which, we hope, all Chinese in Canada will have, 
the South China Mission should become an even 
more effective link between them and their families 
and friends in the homeland. 



23 



BOOKS YOU SHOULD READ ON CHINA 

LOOK AGAIN AT CHINA, by Willis Lamott. A background book profusely illustrated 
with pictures, drawings, maps and graphs, answering the questions ordinarily asked 
concerning the China of today. Beautifully printed by offset in two colours. The 
book has a special interest for members of the United Church of Canada because over 
half of the pictures are by our own photographer, Anson C. Moorhouse. 50c. 

CHRISTIAN VOICES IN CHINA, by Chester S. Miao. The Secretary of Christian 
Education for the National Christian Council of China has assembled fourteen articles 
by outstanding leaders, eleven of whom are Chinese. They deal frankly and con- 
structively with the experiences and problems of the Chinese Church in this post- 
war period. Paper, $1.00; Cloth, $2.00. 

RISING THROUGH THE DUST, by Archie R. Crouch. Written by the Secretary of 
the Border Mission of the Church of Christ in China this book is intended for personal 
reading by young people. It gives a number of interesting sketches of Chinese 
Christians and missionaries with whom the author has worked. Every chapter is 
full of adventure. Paper, 90c.; Cloth, $1.50. 

CHINA— TWILIGHT OR DAWN? by Frank Price. Dr. Price who was born in China 
where his father was a missionary and who himself has had over twenty years of 
experience, is an optimist. He discusses China's present problems and possibilities 
of future greatness from the standpoint of his unconquerable faith in what the Christian 
Church has already done and its potentialities. Paper, 90c.; Cloth, $1.50. 

SERVING WITH THE SONS OF SHUH, by Kenneth J. Beaton. Written in 1941 
for the Fiftieth Anniversary of the founding of our West China Mission, this book 
is a necessity for any leader of a United Church group using the new materials because 
it gives the political and historical background without which no one can understand 
the problems of today. Paper, 50c.; Cloth, $1.00. 

GRANARY OF HEAVEN, by George E. Hartwell. One of the pioneers who opened 
West China in 1891, and who kept a careful diary wrote to the great benefit of the 
Church, this volume of reminiscences. It makes most interesting reading. Paper, 50c 

THE CHINESE CHURCH RIDES THE STORM, by R. O. Jolliffe. Dr. Jolliffe who 
for over twenty years was Secretary of the Literature Department of the Church of 
Christ in West China tells the story of how the Chinese Church overcame the trials and 
tribulations of the Sino-Japanese war with its destruction of buildings, dislocation of 
congregations, loss of life and inevitable confusion of thought. 25c. 

THE MAKING OF A MISSIONARY, by Kenneth J. Beaton. In this unusual little 
book a missionary tries to show how his training was completed after he arrived on 
the field by the Chinese colleagues with whom he was privileged to work. The 
stories are very intimate and since they are all true should prove valuable to any one 
really desiring to understand what manner of people these Chinese Christian leaders 
are. 50c. 

THE COLOSSAL CONCEIT OF MISSIONARIES, by Leslie G. Kilborn. The 

Dean of the College of Medicine at the West China Union University has written a most 
convincing pamphlet showing how the consecrated audacity of missionaries in pitting 
their puny resources against the superstition and ignorance of the multitudes of China 
has been vindicated. 15c. 

For a complete list of graded missionary materials on China 
or to order these books, write to 

THE COMMITTEE ON MISSIONARY EDUCATION 
5U WESLEY BUILDINGS, TORONTO